Osteoporosis is a syndrome of the skeletal system that involves a progressive decrease in bone mass which is more fragile and therefore more exposed to the risk of fractures.
It can be classified into:
- Generalized osteoporosis, which in turn is divided into primary (e.g., postmenopausal, senile, juvenile …) and secondary (e.g., due to endocrine diseases, blood or drug diseases)
- Localized osteoporosis (e.g., arising as a result of immobilization or following trauma)
Osteoporosis is poorly symptomatic; the most common symptom is pain that is dull, continuous, exacerbated by work, or by prolonged maintenance of an upright position, or by excessive walking.
The therapy in this type of syndrome is both preventive and pharmacological.
Prevention is important to recognize and break down all those risk factors that can facilitate the onset of osteoporosis; this can be done through an appropriate diet and adequate physical activity.
In fact, mechanical stresses favor osteoblastic activity (osteoblasts: responsible to produce new bone tissue), and therefore the practice of physical activity increases the production of bone tissue.
The rehabilitation objectives will therefore be to create a sufficient dynamic mechanical stimulation to stimulate the production of osteoblasts, and therefore to improve cellular metabolism and delay bone mineral loss.
For these reasons, dynamic exercises over time are recommended, which involve effective muscle action on the bone levers.
These exercises must be specific in order to avoid excessive loads that may be harmful to the osteo-articular system.
In general, the rehabilitation protocol will have to consider the age, state of health and abilities of the individual patient, and of course it will have to be adapted from time to time according to his needs.
It will be advisable to perform warm-up exercises before starting physical activity, in order to prepare the body for muscle work; it will be advisable to avoid the onset of pain and / or effort and to privilege the quality of the exercise execution; it will be advisable to aim for good breathing and a gradual increase in motor activity; it will be advisable to take breaks between the various exercises and perform a few minutes of relaxation at the end of each session.
In addition to physical activity, it is advisable to perform periodic hormonal checks, follow a correct diet, avoid body overweight and avoid a sedentary lifestyle.
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